List Categories | List All Articles | List Articles By Title
Marcus Garvey: A Symbol for Black Nationalism
My first kid's father named my son Marcus after legendary Marcus Garvey. Which made me curious to know more about who Marcus Garvey actually was?
"Up You Mighty Race, Accomplish What You Will..." (Marcus Garvey)
The following text is dedicated to my eldest son Marcus.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born on August the 17, 1887, in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica as the youngest of 11 children.
Marcus Garvey was known as a journalist, entrepreneur, publisher and a crusader for black nationalism. During his whole life, he has fought for racial equality.
In St Ann's Bay, young Marcus attended grammar school. Alfred Burrowes, his godfather, also gave him some private instruction. Alfred Burrowes hired Marcus at the age of 14 as an apprentice in order to learn the printing trade.
Garvey's father, who was the owner of a private library, encouraged young Marcus' love for books.
During his apprentice period, Marcus used to discuss politics and social affairs at his uncle's place.
In 1906, Garvey moved from St Ann to Kingston.
In 1908, Marcus Garvey participated in Jamaica's first Printers' Union strike. The strike was unsuccessful and as a consequence, Marcus Garvey lost his job.
Luckily, he was employed by the Government Printing Office.
Visiting the world
Around 1910, Marcus Garvey left Jamaica for Costa Rica. There, he worked as a time keeper at a panana plantation. Then he went to Central America, visited the Panama Central Zone. He observed Blacks and Indians hard working conditions. He also traveled to Equador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Columbia and Venezuela.
Very sensitive about discrimination and racial prejudice, Marcus Garvey always had the will to make things change. That's why he appealed to his government in order to improve West Indians working conditions. But the government just wouldn't listen to his complaint.
Garvey, the publisher
Marcus Garvey's first publications started during his Central American travels.
In 1910, Garvey started his first newspaper, The Watcher, that was followed by several other short lived newspapers
He was also associated with several publications:
- The African Times and Orient Review, The Daily Negro Times, Harlem, 1922-1924
-The Blackman, Kingston, Jamaica, 1929-1931
-The New Jamaican, Kingston, 1932-33
Marcus Garvey started The Black Man Magazine in 1933 in Kingston. His magazine was continued in England until 1939.
Black militantism: the creation of the UNIA-ACL
Marcus Garvey was very conscious that improving black folks conditions was a long term work. It had better chances to work if Africans united. That's why he created the the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League (UNIA). As the President of the UNIA, he defined its goal to unite « all the people of African ancestry of the world into one great body to establish a country and Government absolutely their own. » very precisely. The UNIA's flag is red, black and green.
In 1916, Marcus Garvey went to the USA and gave a lecture tour.
In 1920, Garvey set up branches of the UNIA in more than 40 countries.
Marcus Garvey fought for social, political and economic freedom for Black people.
He founded several companies like Black Star Line and Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company.
He also created the Negro Factories Corporation, which helped to created more marketable black businesses. Garvey was commercially very active: he started chains of groceries and restaurants and many other kind of businesses.
"Africa for the Africans...At Home and Abroad!"
Marcus Garvey wanted Blacks to consider Africa as their permanent homeland:
« I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa, there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there. Our success educationally, industrially and politically is based upon the protection of a nation founded by ourselves. And the nation can be nowhere else but in Africa ».
In 1920, he worked on the ambitious project to develop African state Liberia by building colleges and industries , but he had to stop it, because of many European countries' political and economic interest in Liberia.
Mail fraud charges
Marcus Garvey was confronted by mail fraud charges in 1925 and sentenced to jail in 1925. He was jailed at Atlanta Federal prison. After his release in 1927, he was deported from New Orleans to Kingston, Jamaica, where a huge crowd welcomed him.
Defending Blacks till his death
Marcus Garvey has never stopped fighting for the cause he found right.
In 1928, he went to Geneva. He presented the "Petition of the Negro Race" to the League of Nations, which was strongly against black people's abuse around the world.
In 1929, he founded the PPP (People's Political Party), which became Jamaica's first political party. This political party was all about helping poor people, education and workers' rights.
In 1929, Garvey was elected Councillor for the Allman Town division of the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC).
He was reelected in 1930.
In 1931, Marcus Garvey created Edelweiss Amusement Company, a company that was supposed to help artists to make a living out of their work and to give them an opportunity to get known better- at least locally.
In 1935, Marcus Garvey moved to London. He kept being involved in his activism till his death. Garvey died in London in 1940. He is considered as Jamaica's first national hero.
It is a known fact that Marcus Garvey was nicknamed « Black Moses »?
Don't search so many saints in the Holy Bible when you have a pretty good example in real life.
Copyright©2005 by Isabelle Esling
I am an Eminem biographer and a freelance music journalist. I teach English and German at public schools.
Ernesto Apomayta offers Explanation of Mediums, Paints, & Techniques Used by Artists
Special Types of MediumsRice paper is a very delicate medium with lots of natural imperfections that lend beauty and character to the painting. Some rice paper has flecks, sparkle, gold, and silver incorporated within the paper.
Flows of Civilization; Views from a Think Tank
Over the past few years we have been discussing many topics. Most of what is discussed here has to do with observations of the world we live in.
Those Dirty Mexicans--Oh, Really?
When my wife and I announced that we were moving to Mexico, one of my wife's relatives asked us,"Why do you want to live with those dirty Mexicans?"Besides wanting to slap some sense into this person, I was particularly sickened (as in wanting to projectile vomit Linda Blair-style) by this hideous and most heinous stereotype. I have wanted to know since then where this originated.
Amber Mysteries Revealed
Amber, the gem of a stone that's not really a gemstone at all, is actually fossilized pine sap. People have collected, traded, carved, and coveted amber for more than 10,000 years.
Gymnastics History - A Brief Overview
Gymnastics, as an activity, has been around for more than two thousand years in one form or another, from the ancient Greek Olympics, to Roman ceremony, to today's modern meets.As an organized and truly competitive sport, gymnastics has existed for a little more than a century.
A Look at the Heart of American Beauty
Sam Mendes' darkly comic portrayal of suburbia in his first movie, American Beauty (1999) takes a hard look at what happens when you've accomplished the American Dream only to realize that it isn't enough. Lester, the film's anti-hero wakes up one morning deep in a mid life crisis and decides that he wants something more then the life he has carved out for himself and proceeds to search for that something and in the process, disrupts the lives of those around him, particularly his wife Caroline.
The Monsters Mother
Somewhere in the world, every eight seconds, a mother is throwing her hands in the air and declaring that her child is a little monster. But for Echidna it was the literal truth.
The Sterling Silver Story
Silver is the most common of the Precious Metals. It's working qualities are very similar to gold.
The Power of Words
I freely confess that I have had a life-long love affair with words. I fell in love with words by the flickering light of a pine-knot fire.
Mexican Living: Daily Schedule of an Expatriate
I was wondering if you might be interested in what I do with my time as an expatriate and if I have any sort of real life. I guarantee you that I do.
Inuit Drum Dancing Of The Arctic
Like many other aboriginal cultures around the world, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have made use of drums in some of their traditional music for centuries. Inuit drum dancing played a part in many special occasions such as births, marriages, an Inuit boy's first hunt, changing of seasons, greetings for visitors or to honor someone who had passed away.
Learn How to Solve Problems With a Feng Shui Mirror
A mirror, when becoming a feng shui mirror, can be used to many more things than allowing us to see how we look. Feng shui teaches how a feng shui mirror can be used in order to solve many different problems, and we will describe some of these uses through the next few lines.
Gymnastics Olympic Champions From 1988-2004
Here are the men's and women's all-around champions from the last five Olympic Games -- these are just brief biographies, but they surely give you an idea of your gymnast's potential.2004 Paul Hamm, Carly PattersonPaul Hamm, the 2004 men's all-around champion in gymnastics, was born on September 24, 1982, and has a twin brother by the name of Morgan.
I, Ego, and Power
I: - A vowel that didn't appear in sacerdotal alphabets for which there is little, or should I say not one IOTA of, reason to hold up for personal glorification. The ego is man's greatest hindrance and his competitiveness possesses him like the demons he has created in his IGNORANCE!I O TORUS:Mathematics has a language so pure it cannot lie.
Mexican Living: Myth Busting
Myth One: Mexicans are lazy, good-for-nothings.I mention this one first because it is one of the vilest myths and an excellent example of Americans' xenophobic stereotyping.
A Short Biography on Some of Europes Most Loved and Hated Monarchs - Pt 3 King Ludwig II
King Ludwig II of Bavaria, named after his grandfather, was born in Nymphenburg Castle outside Munich on August 25, 1845 and was the eldest son of King Maximillian II and Queen Marie. As a boy, Ludwig's favourite time of the year were the summer holidays spent at the Royal Castle Hohenschwangau which his father restored between 1832 and 1836.
Civil War Uniform Shirts - When to Use a One and Two Piece Body!
So, you want to make your own Civil War shirt. You have so many decisions to make - one or two-piece body, type of front, buttons, material, colors, collars! Wow.
Precious Stones v.s. Semi-Precious Stones
Stones have been worn by both women and men since prehistoric times. Just as in the jewelry of modern times, beautiful stones, rare and colorful, are most often the dominant feature of a piece with a metallic setting for ornamentation.
Export/Import of Inuit Eskimo Art Sculpture Containing Whalebone or Ivory
The export of certain Inuit sculpture from Canada to other parts of the world including the United States does have some restrictions. In order to reduce harvesting of marine animals such as whales and walruses, the United States Congress passed the Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972.
Hip-hop Jewelry and Todays Stars
Watch any of the major movie, television, and music award shows on television today and one of the first things you'll notice about the celebrities on the red carpet, aside from their extravagant (and sometimes outlandish) attire, are the amount and size of the jewelry they are wearing. Hip-hop jewelry, more commonly known as bling-bling, is definitely not understated fashion.
home | site map
All articles are copyright to their owners.
Note: this website lists articles, We do not Write Articles !