List Categories | List All Articles | List Articles By Title
Not All Glass is Created Equal
Pressed glass, Depression glass and crystal - this month we'll review the basics of these different types of glass and some tips on telling the difference.
Glass was first recorded being made in ancient Rome, Egypt and Syria. It was made by heating and fusing sand, potash or soda with lime.
Types of Glass
Soda glass, potash glass and lead glass are the three main types of glass.
Starting in the 13th century, soda glass was made in Venice. Glassmakers were able to form molten glass into elaborate shapes because it contained burned seaweed, making the glass very malleable.
Potash glass came from northern Europe. Potash was made from a combination of burned wood and bracken making the glass well suited for engraving and cutting.
Lead glass (crystal, lead crystal)
Starting in Europe in the 17th century, lead glass was developed. It was derived from adding lead oxide to potash glass. The words lead glass, lead crystal and crystal all mean the same thing. Crystal is simply a type of glass. It is the addition of lead to mix that makes crystal harder than regular glass. Crystal is less likely to have bubbles, which is helpful when cutting
Popularized during the Victoria era, pressed glass is made from a mould and is less valuable than cut glass. You can identify pressed glass from the mould line that is visible and the less sharply faceted decoration.
Popularized during the Great Depression, companies such as Hocking Glass, Federal and MacBeth-Evans mass-produced this form of pressed glassware. It was often given away free as a gift with purchase. There are many colours and patterns available.
Decoration on glass
There are four types of decorations used to adorn glass: cutting, enamelling, gilding and engraving.
Facets cut into glass reflect light and create sparkle. One tip to help date a piece of glass is to look for shallow surface cuts which were used in the earliest days of glass cutting.
In the 15th century, the Venetians popularized the enamelling of glass that is a process of painting on glass.
It is a technique of adding gold decoration to glass that was often done by firing the gold onto a glass surface.
It was done by diamond point engraving (scratching the design onto the surface of the glass using a diamond nib), wheel engraving (scratching the design on the surface of the glass using small copper wheels rotating against the surface) stipple engraving (scratching the design onto the surface of the glass using fine diamond needle that taps out the design in a series of dots and lines) or acid etching (scratching the design on the surface of glass using a sharp tool then subjecting the glass to hydrofluoric acid which etched the design onto the glass).
How to tell crystal from cut glass
Weight is the number one tip-off that something is crystal rather than glass. The lead in crystal makes it is heavier than cut glass. The telltale ping when you flick your fingernail against crystal is another way to tell crystal from glass.
Why is modern-day crystal less brilliant than antique crystal
Crystal made in the early 1900s contains about 25 to 28 percent lead. Modern crystal contains only 10 to 12 percent lead. This reduction in the lead content makes modern crystal less brilliant than antique crystal.
How to tell if it is early glass
Old engraving will look dark and grey against a white background. New glass engraving will not look grey against a white background.
There are many reproductions circulating because modern glassmakers made imitations of 18th century glass. There is nothing wrong with reproductions as long as you know that is what you are buying. You can spot reproductions three ways:
Reproductions may not have the distinctive tint caused by natural occurring impurities. Use the white background test; if the engraving looks grey against the white, the item is likely to be old.
Machine-made glass will not have the rough bump under the stem that hand-blown glass will have. This bump results from the item being removed from the glassblower's rod. Also, hand-blown glass might have imperfections such as uneven thickness, ripples or striations that machine-made glass does not have.
Styles and proportions have varied over the years. One thing to look for is that the foot on antique glass is often as wide as the bowl.
Glass and crystal are one collectible where the secondary market is more affordable than the primary market. The reason is supply and demand. Plenty of crystal was made over the years, plenty of people took good care of it, and, as a result plenty of it is still around.
Martin Swinton owns Take-A-Boo Emporium, an antique shop located in Toronto, Canada. He does furniture restoration, caning and rushing repairs, custom reproductions, upholstery, teaches courses on antiques and does appraisals for estates and community events. He can be reached at 416-785-4555 or by visiting http://www.takeaboo.com
Liven Up Your Walls With Decorative Plates
Decorative plates are often overlooked when decorating a home. Yet, it's the details that really make the elements of a room come together-and decorative plates are a detail present in most rooms.
Installing Granite Countertops
Granite is not only the hardest material available for countertops; it's also the most expensive, with prices starting at $60 a square foot. Though adding granite countertops to any kitchen can be quite costly, they remain the premiere choice in many new and remodeled homes.
Embossed Votive Holder Shade
Create the look of a Stained Glass Votive HolderSupplies Needed:Most items can be found in the Scrap booking/Stamping section of your local craft store.Straight-Sided Clear Glass Votive HolderVellumCraft Markers of various colorsHole PunchDecorative StringEmbossing Powder in your choice of colorVersamark Ink PadEmbossing Heat ToolScissorsTape Measure or Ruler1.
Kids Ceiling Fans
There are ceiling fans designed especially for children, which have designs made to appeal to the imaginations and interests of young ones. There is a wide selection of children's ceiling fans from many different manufacturers.
An Introduction to Wood Stoves
Wood stoves are like small fireplaces. They are inexpensive and can be built into a home or added later.
Decorating With Art
A Little Savvy with Framed Art Prints and Photographs Can Help Successfully Pull a Room TogetherMaybe you're restricted by an older living space with existing furnishings, or overwhelmed by the possibilities a stark new space may offer. Maybe you're decorating with unlimited funds, or on a shoe string budget.
Do It Yourself Bathroom Curtain
Need An Easy Bathroom Curtain Idea?I've always had a hard time decorating my bathrooms. You want them to look more "cute" instead of fancy, after all, it is a bathroom not a bedroom! I wanted to have some type of window treatment over the windows, but the ones I usually picked out were more decorative and elegant and didn't serve as a good shade for those looking in!Those plain old roller shades were perfect for keeping peepers out, but they were ugly! So plain and not colorful at all.
Refinishing Hardwood Floors
The quality of the wear layer determines frequency of refinishing of hardwood floors. Poor quality products can not withstand being refinished even once.
A Brief History of Wedgwood China
The story of the line begins in 1730 with the birth of Josiah Wedgwood to a family who manufactured pottery. At six years old, Josiah was an apprentice and by 14 he had suffered a bout of smallpox that weakened his right knee.
Displaying Posters: Some Ways You Never Thought Of
How many ways can you display posters? With the easy availability of thousands of inexpensive posters online, you can turn any house or apartment into a unique art gallery!Sure, a poster can be hung on a wall, or attached to it with tacks or tape. But often a more interesting look comes from placing a grouping of posters on the same wall.
Decorating for Real Life and Real People
I spent a recent weekend curled up with a stack of decorating magazines. I read them cover to cover - usually back to front, but that's the way I read most magazines and newspapers.
A Look at Cuckoo Clock Movement
The inside mechanics of cuckoo clocks maintain virtually the same design since the day they were first created in the Black Forest of Germany. While the parts are now sometimes made out of metal and plastic instead of the all wood versions that started it all, the weights and counterbalance mechanisms that help them perform accurately and to imitate the sound of the cuckoo bird have not changed much in almost 300 years.
The Many Types Of Light Available Today
The Many Types Of Light Available TodayWhat's in a light bulb? For most people, an incandescent light bulb comes to mind when discussing "light". The incandescent light bulb has traditionally provided homes with light into the wee hours of the night.
The Effect of Scent on Moods
When we talk about scents it could refer to a variety of applications. From the choice of perfume we wear, to lotions we use, candles we choose, oils, potpourris, etc.
Three Ways to Add Charm and Style to Your Kitchen
I like decorating my kitchen with a cozy, warm, inviting, homey feeling to it. Usually I'm fighting for all the space I can get in my kitchen too.
Fruit Basket Delivery
Probably the single most important component responsible for making the fruit basket the most popular gift in history is the modern technology applied to the delivery of the product itself. Overnight delivery from almost anywhere in the world, is what makes the fruit basket the most versatile and exotic of gifts available.
An Introduction to Air Purifiers
Air purifiers have been around in various forms since the 1940s, when the first HEPA filter was designed to protect workers from airborne nuclear material. Since then, air purifiers have been used in hospitals, work sites, and homes to protect against viruses, mold, bacteria, pollen, pet dander, tobacco smoke, dust mites, and a great number of industrial and household chemicals.
Finding Discount Waterbed Sheets
Consumers may be led to believe that waterbed sheets are more expensive than conventional sheets, but this is not true. Cheap waterbed sheets are easy to come by.
Go Vintage When Decorating Your Hearth
With the weather cooling, it's time to put on the fireplace. Curling up near a cozy fire is a wonderful winter pastime but you'll need the right tools to tend your fire.
The Value of Antique Wood Stoves
Antique wood stoves provide decoration and can still be used for heating and cooking. Stoves from as long ago as the 1870's are available for purchase in antique stores and over the Internet.
home | site map
All articles are copyright to their owners.
Note: this website lists articles, We do not Write Articles !