List Categories | List All Articles | List Articles By Title
Behavioral Manifestations of Alzheimer's Dementia
Alzheimer's Dementia has a combination of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Cognitive impairment is the core problem which includes memory deficits and at least one of the following: aphasia or language problem, agnosia or problems with recognition, apraxia or motor activity problem, and impairment in executive functioning (e.g. planning, abstract reasoning, and organizing).
As the disease advances, the cognitive decline becomes associated with behavioral manifestations. What are these behavioral manifestations of dementia?
Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer's can be grouped into two categories: psychological and behavioral. Major psychological syndromes consist of depression, anxiety, delusions, and hallucinations.
Depression in dementia is very common. Up to about 87% of patients develop some form of depression. It is characterized by tearfulness or crying episodes, feelings of sadness, and neurovegetative signs and symptoms such as inability to sleep, lack of appetite, poor energy, and thoughts of death. Irritability is also common. Depression can occur even in the early or mild phase of the illness.
About 50% of demented patients show delusions or false fixed beliefs. Such delusions include beliefs that a relative is stealing, that a spouse is just an impostor or is having an affair with a neighbor, or that friends and relatives are conspiring to cause trouble.
Moreover, many patients with dementia may experience hallucinations. Most of these hallucinations are visual - seeing strangers in the house, an animal or insects in the living room, people in the bedroom or on top of the TV set. Occasionally, auditory hallucinations may be experienced - hearing footsteps or knocking on the door or even people singing church hymns.
Regarding major behavioral syndromes associated with dementia, these problems include agitation, verbal outbursts, repetitive behavior, wandering, and aggression or even violence. Agitation can be manifested by pacing back and forth, restlessness, and inability to sit still.
Verbal outbursts consist of day-long screaming or occasional yelling at someone. Repetitive behavior is manifested by closing and opening a closet or a purse or a drawer. Asking questions repetitively for instance about a relative's visit is very common.
Wandering can happen especially at the late stages of the illness. If doors are left unlock, some patients wander away from the house. Hence, safety level becomes an issue.
Aggression likewise may occur. Hitting the caregiver or throwing things are some complaints. Destroying things although rare can also ensue. A gentleman for example hit the wall with a cane and broke the window by smashing a chair.
Although difficult to deal with, most of these behavioral consequences of dementia can be treated especially if recognized and addressed early.
Copyright © 2004. All rights reserved. Dr. Michael G. Rayel - author (First Aid to Mental Illness-Finalist, Reader's Preference Choice Award 2002), psychiatrist, and inventor of Oikos Game: An EQ Game. For info, visit http://www.oikosgame.com and http://www.soardime.com
Insighting Human Behavior thru Gravity Wave Simulations of the Moon
Every police officer will tell you that when there is a full moon, the natives are restless and it will be a long night, with lots of arrests and paperwork? This is a known fact one which cannot be dismissed so easily after such basic observations. An evolutionary theorist would say this is because on moonlit nights our ancient ancestors went on night hunts or that the Sabertooth tigers came to hunt us? Some say these things date back to our Tree Shrew ancestry, all of which Darwin might agree is plausible.
Nature VS Nurture - Theories of Personality in 21st Century
Nature vs Nurture theories have wasted a lot of energy of human beings. Plato is considered first to realize that you are made of not only flesh but also an intellectual soul.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Nightmare After The Ordeal
Sarah is a 28 y/o accountant who had a traumatic past that she kept to herself. At age 15, she was grabbed by a masked man while she was jogging in a park.
What Causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
The most recent models that attempt to describe what is happening in the brains of people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder suggest that several areas of the brain may be affected by the disorder. They include the frontal lobes, the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortex, the limbic system, and the reticular activating system.
The Psychology of Torture
There is one place in which one's privacy, intimacy, integrity and inviolability are guaranteed - one's body, a unique temple and a familiar territory of sensa and personal history. The torturer invades, defiles and desecrates this shrine.
Robotic Bonding Thru Human First Love Memory Replication
Many Science Fiction authors have discussed in many works the issues with robotic assistants and companions. Today we see DARPA awarding a contract to a group of artificial intelligence software gurus to put together a computer assistant, which can read any manual and then explain in human terms what it says.
Rediscovering the Mind
From the viewpoint of a modern microbiologist, we hear the call for integration and common sense in sciences that are all too often devising separate stakes and battlements to pontificate from, on high. The 'experts' thus proving their ignorance because the result inevitably is specious ego and puffery.
Get Out of Jail Free: Stop Being Defensive
When Marcus and Sally first met they immediately felt like kindred spirits. Marcus was generally warm and open.
Countess Erszebet Bathory was a breathtakingly beautiful, unusually well-educated woman, married to a descendant of Vlad Dracula of Bram Stoker fame. In 1611, she was tried - though, being a noblewoman, not convicted - in Hungary for slaughtering 612 young girls.
The Mind, Information, and Attitude
Information is flowing to us at a great rate. The radio, television, the internet, advertising, newspapers and magazines are giving us information all day.
The Iron Mask - The Common Sources of Personality Disorders
Do all personality disorders have a common psychodynamic source?To what stage of personal development can we attribute this common source?Can the paths leading from that common source to each of these disorders be charted?Will positive answers to the above endow us with a new understanding of these pernicious conditions?Acute AngerAnger is a compounded phenomenon. It has dispositional properties, expressive and motivational components, situational and individual variations, cognitive and excitatory interdependent manifestations and psychophysiological (especially neuroendocrine) aspects.
Establishing Trust in Grief Management Groups
Trust is the basis of all human relationships. Trust can be thought of as a tool that can measure the positive and negative nature of a relationship.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Neurologically Based
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurologically based disorder. This position has become controversial as many would like to dismiss the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder altogether saying that there is no evidence of neurological differences, or that there are no medical tests to diagnose ADD ADHD, or that the diagnostic criteria is too broad.
Traumas as Social Interactions
("He" in this text - to mean "He" or "She").We react to serious mishaps, life altering setbacks, disasters, abuse, and death by going through the phases of grieving.
Waking Up in the Middle of a Good Dream
When the brain is asleep and in REM dream mode it has distinct patterns not found in normal waking states. When people who are dreaming are hooked up to machines the REM mode of sleep is quite evident.
Parapsychology: Maximizing Effectivity Of Targeted Controlled Remote Viewing Techniques
Individuals with a solid working knowledge of Controlled Remote Viewing (CRV) have undoubtedly encountered the "plateaus" experienced at various levels throughout the ability's development.Successful employment of CRV to identify characteristics of past, present, or future events depends heavily on the viewer's ability to transmit retrieved data between the subconscious/conscious divide.
An Easy Cure For Math Phobia
Why is it that one person enjoys math, while another person hates it?Why does one child happily and quickly calculate a simple sum, while another won't even attempt it because they're convinced they're simply "no good with numbers"?The problem certainly isn't caused by lack of intelligence.In fact there are many examples throughout history of seemingly "stupid" people who could do amazing things with numbers.
What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a medical condition. It is caused by genetic factors that result in certain neurological differences.
Narcissism, Substance Abuse, and Reckless Behaviours
Pathological narcissism is an addiction to Narcissistic Supply, the narcissist's drug of choice. It is, therefore, not surprising that other addictive and reckless behaviours - workaholism, alcoholism, drug abuse, pathological gambling, compulsory shopping, or reckless driving - piggyback on this primary dependence.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica (1999 edition) defines empathy as:"The ability to imagine oneself in anther's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. It is a term coined in the early 20th century, equivalent to the German Einfühlung and modelled on "sympathy.
home | site map
All articles are copyright to their owners.
Note: this website lists articles, We do not Write Articles !