List Categories | List All Articles | List Articles By Title
Omega 3 and Reduced Risk of Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction is a technical term used to describe an irreversible injury to heart muscle. It is normally used as a synonym for a heart attack and will be so used in this essay. Myocardial infarction is normally related to progressive atherosclerosis (blockage of the arteries.) Essentially the heart is slowly starved of oxygen and stops functioning properly causing irreparable damage and even death.
It is no surprise that much of the developed world suffers from heart disease because of diet and other lifestyle habits. In the United States heart disease remains the number one killer among adults and demonstrates similar statistics in many other modern countries. The surprise comes in knowing that the majority of heart disease is avoidable yet educated people continue to ignore the dangers and promote lifestyles conducive to cardiac damage. Though many factors contribute to heart disease the current essay will focus on one, in two parts. First we will consider the relation of fish consumption and myocardial infarction. Secondly we will consider the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 and vitamin E for those who had previously survived a heart attack.
Fish consumption and heart disease has been a topic of innumerable studies. One research project combined data taken from several such studies including the Chicago Western Electric Study, the Zutphen, Rotterdam and Swedish studies and the Study of U.S. Physicians among others. The goal of this research was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and the 30-year risk of death from coronary disease.
The participants of the study included 1,822 men between the ages of forty and fifty-five who were free of cardiovascular disease. For the first ten years annual examinations were given and mailed questionnaires and/or telephone interviews were used for the next fifteen years. Death certificates were used to classify cause of death for each patient.
During the 30-years follow up there were a total of 430 deaths from cardiovascular disease with 293 due to myocardial infarctions. Of the latter 196 were sudden, 94 were non-sudden and the remaining three could not be classified as either. Almost all of the sudden deaths were caused by myocardial infarction.
Detailed dietary history was kept on each participant with daily fish consumption as the primary focus. Each participant was categorized into one of four groups. The first group reportedly consumed no fish. The second group consumed between one and seventeen grams of fish per day. The third and fourth groups measured consumption as eighteen to thirty-four grams per day and greater than thirty-four grams per day respectively.
Predictably the results demonstrated an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. In particular the participants who ate at least 35 grams of fish per day had a 42% lower death rate from heart attack compared to those who ate no fish at all.
The findings of these combined studies were consistent with other data concluding that diets high in fish demonstrate a reduced occurrence of death from coronary heart disease. This is especially true in relation to deaths that are of a non-sudden nature. That is not to conclude, however, that fish consumption does not inversely affect the risk of sudden cardiac death. Other studies have verified that such a relationship exists. Those studies are, however, beyond the scope of this essay.
But why does fish consumption improve heart health? It could just be the fact that people who eat fish eat less of other harmful foods. To focus a little more closely on the beneficial causes of fish consumption it is important to consider at least one study that isolated omega-3 intake via dietary supplements regardless of diet. The interesting thing about this study is that it was concerned with the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E supplementation on patients who had already experienced a heart attack.
The GISSI-Prevenzione trial, as it is known, hoped to establish any relationship that might exist between omega-3 and vitamin E as combined agents in the fight against heart disease. It was a randomized trial involving 11,234 patients who had survived a heart attack within the previous three months at the time the study began. The participants were divided into four groups. Group one received one gram of omega-3 supplements daily. Group two received 300mg of vitamin E every day. Group three received both while the control group received neither. Each participant received clinical examinations with blood samples taken and were asked to fill out diet questionnaires at the outset of the experiment and at six, twelve, eighteen, thirty and forty-two months.
The data were analyzed using two methods. A two-way analysis was made comparing omega-3 supplementing and no omega-3, as well as vitamin E intake compared to no vitamin E. A four-way analysis was also conducted comparing the combination of omega-3 and vitamin E with omega-3 alone and vitamin E alone. The effects of the combined supplements were also compared with the group that took no supplements.
The results of the test demonstrated a 14% decrease in death from any cause for the two-way analysis and a 20% drop in death rate for the four-way analysis. Concerning only death due to cardiovascular disease, the two-way analysis showed a 17% reduction of risk while the four-way analysis revealed a 30% decrease. Though vitamin E is known to be a powerful antioxidant, the group that supplemented with the combination of omega-3 and vitamin E showed no life-expectancy advantage over the group that supplemented with only the omega-3.
The overall conclusion of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial was that supplementing with omega-3 provided long term benefits in lowering risk of death for patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction.
Greg holds degrees in science, divinity and philosophy and is currently an I.T. developer.
Kanhaiya Amla Powder
AMLA ( EMBLICA OFFICINALIS ) FOR HEALTH AND BEAUTYAMLA, proudly known as 'Indian Gooseberry' has been the key constituent of many Ayurvedic formulations. And nowadays, it has been accepted by almost all medical branches as a result of extensive research carried at Germany, England, India, and various other countries.
Creatine Supplementation for Increased Performance and Building Muscle
Creatine is an amino acid that is in meat and fish. It is produced by the body in the liver and kidneys and converted in the muscles to creatine phosphate to resupply them with their source of energy.
A long time ago, in the country far, far away, a young boy decided he wanted to change his stars for good. He decided that bodybuilding would be his ticket to the top and starts pumping iron.
Havent Heard of the Acai Berry Yet?
You've probably been eating blueberries since you were a little kid. Maybe you've had huckleberries too, which are a little harder to find since they're hand-picked in the wild.
Know Your Bodybuilding Supplement - BCAAs
BCAA stands for branched chain amino acids and is increasingly being recognized as an important supplement in the field of sports nutrition. In short the term refers to three essential amino acids - leucine, isoleucine and valine.
The Vitamin Companies Don't Want You To Know
Do you ever find yourself asking any or all of these questions:Why do I keep spending money on vitamins and not feel a thing?Why do I still get sick and continuously feel lousy?Why is it so hard to stay "consistent" when it comes to taking vitamins on a regular basis?Which vitamins does MY BODY need?Will I be able to live life to it's fullest as I get older?How do I know "For Sure" which nutrients I am lacking in my diet?The "New Scoop" On Vitamins?Vitamin supplements may be much more important than doctors thought in warding off cancer, heart disease and the ravages of aging-and, no, you may not be getting enough of these crucial nutrients in your diet!Vitamins are a "Key" factor in warding off the following chronic diseases:Heart DiseaseLung CancerBowel CancerBreast CancerProstate CancerOsteoporosisAnd,The fact is: YOU probably aren't getting the nutrients that you need!World class nutrition experts have been recommending vitamins for more than 35 years!"To take or not to take" is no longer the question. ALL nutrition experts and most doctors support supplementation.
Alzheimer Disease and Antioxidants
At the present time, one out of ten adults have some form of Alzheimer disease. According to Dr.
Vitamins and Minerals Help Ensure A Good Healthy Heart
Taking good care of your body means that you are able to maintain adequate amounts of the minerals, vitamins and nutrients that are needed to ensure a totally healthy well-being. Also, it is very important to note that the heart requires a significant amount of attention too, in order for it to be able to function well and be able to have a healthy circulation of blood around the body.
Suffering From Osteoarthritis Pain? Natural Relief Is Available
It is clearly evident that hyaluronic acid in its oral form supports optimal joint health. The reality of the situation is that after 65 years of age approximately 30 percent of all doctor visits will be related to pain caused by osteoarthritis.
What Vitamin Supplement is Best for Gastric Bypass Patients
The multi-vitamin market is rich with choice. It's also very confusing.
As with most nutrients and minerals, zinc is often ignored by the average person however, it is an essential mineral that plays many roles in promoting the healthy functioning of the body. Its importance to the body's well-being goes far back as the earliest moments of growth and development and is serves a highly important role in maintaining a healthy way of life.
Taste is Everything When Choosing a Protein Bar
As consumers, we are faced daily with choices about what to eat. As a bodybuilder, we are bombarded with protein bars that promise everything from tons of protein, low carbs, less fat, and the cheapest bar on the market.
Revealed! The Secrets of Mangosteen
Do you spend at least some time in your day thinking about your health or that of a loved one? Do you also find the subject is frustrating, mainly because there is a lot of confusing and sometimes contradictory information out there?You are not alone!My wife and I have been involved with complimentary health care for 10 years and we are sometimes confused too! So are many of our friends and clients.So, I want to share with you, a very pleasant surprise I received a few months ago.
Antioxidants May Prevent Childhood Asthma
A source suggests that there may be a new way to help children who are subjected to the dangers of second hand tobacco smoke.It has become apparent that childhood asthma could be prevented with the help of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin C, and Selenium.
The History And Usefulness Of Coenzyme Q10
Throughout my childhood I was aware of the importance of eating well and taking my vitamins. But the science of dietary supplements has come a long way since those days.
The Importance of Taking a Multivitamin Supplement
It's absolutely crucial that your body gets the nutrients it needs to function effectively and efficiently. The daily stress of pollution, fatty and processed food, and stress deplete your body of nutrients and it's up to you to replace these nutrients.
What Is The Best Muscle Building Supplement Available Today?
What's the best muscle building supplement available today? You might not like the answer.And if you don't, you might want to consider getting away from all those "steroid-like" results ads you are bombarded with in all the magazines.
Fish Oil and Possible Disease Prevention
Researchers working at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center state that DPA and DHA, primary components of fish oil, provide substantial protection against coronary heart disease. This study involved more tha six thousand middle-aged men who had samples of their blood taken between 1973 and 1976.
Vitamins for the Recovering Alcoholic
I have frequently heard alcoholics who are in early recovery remark that, "If this is what recovery is like, I'd rather go back to drinking." Vitamin deficiencies, particularly of the B vitamins and vitamin C, may be responsible for much of the lethargy, skin irritation, memory loss and depression experienced by people who are newly recovering from an addiction to alcohol.
Iron and Your Heart Health
A ranch house, a zip lock bag and some ordinary flourTwo experiments:1)Some ordinary wheat flour such as can be found in most homes placed with some water in a zip-lock plastic bag. A magnet is passed over the bag and an extraordinary thing happens - Iron particles start popping out and attaching themselves to the side of the bag, forming clusters of what looked like iron filings.
home | site map
All articles are copyright to their owners.
Note: this website lists articles, We do not Write Articles !